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terça-feira, 11 de setembro de 2012

Vigilância Popular and SNASP

State Security:
[Serviço Nacional de Segurança Popular]

Dossier MZ-0155
Decoration
In late 1974, the Transitional Government in Mozambique agreed to hand over responsibility for domestic security to Frelimo. It appears that SNASP, the Serviço Nacional de Segurança Popular, roughly the National People’s Security Service, was set up early in 1975. At that time, a highly militarized and state-centred concept of ‘security’ dominated the thinking of the Mozambican government on the one side, and the white minority regime in Rhodesia and the apartheid South African state on the other.
SNASP was therefore formed very much in the mould of a classic secret security police force. During the early years, very little was published or known about its activities, unless it pulled off a coup such as arresting a group of spies or saboteurs, or alternatively was involved in a spectacular debacle. (There is a brief discussion of the setting up of the security ministry in Jacinto Veloso’s memoir Memórias em voo rasante [Maputo, 2006], p.103 et seq.)
By these criteria, then, the key moments in SNASP’s history seem to have been the exposure of the CIA network in March 1981; the attack on its integrity by Samora Machel in November 1981 and the subsequent massive purges of its ranks over several months; the defection of Jorge da Costa in June 1982; the security failure represented by Machel’s death at Mbuzini in October 1986; its possible involvement in the murder of Evo Fernandes in Lisbon in April 1988; and its forced disbandment in July 1991 as part of the peace agreement with Renamo.
Rede da CIA
Above: the cover of the book by Abel Mutemba, Operação 6.º aniversário: como uma rede da CIA foi desmantelada em Moçambique (Maputo: Publicações Notícias, 1981. Left: top, Jacinto Veloso, minister of security, 1975-1983; centre, the cover of an edition of Samora Machel’s speech of 5 November 1981; bottom, the cover of Veloso’s memoirs, 2006.
Probably its biggest and most publicised accomplishment was the 1981 exposure of the CIA network, which resulted in the expulsion of four United States diplomats and represented, unsurprisingly, a low point in Mozambican-US relations.
On 5 November 1981, at a public meeting [comício] in Maputo, President Samora Machel criticised severely and in some detail the service’s methods. By February 1982 over 400 of its agents had reportedly been purged. It is unclear what impact this had on the effectiveness of SNASP, although some of the later reports in this dossier hint at continuing high-level dissatisfaction with its performance. The defection of Jorge da Costa to South Africa in mid-1982 was also obviously a severe blow.
The Mbuzini disaster, as well as the shadowy career of Evo Fernandes, will be or are dealt with on other pages of this Website. Reports of SNASP action against e.g. smugglers will be found in the relevant dossiers.
Vigilância Popular was the term used for the extensive networks of volunteers who watched out in factories or in villages for espionage, sabotage or any forms of economic disruption. Although several of the articles listed below deal with these groups, there was not much informative reporting on their activities.
Decoration

MHN Resources

29 November 1974
[Untitled news clipping]. Zambia Daily Mail [Lusaka], 29 November 1974. Portuguese High Commissioner Victor Crespo announces that Frelimo is to take charge of Mozambique’s internal security forces. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 275 kb.
20 August 1975
Marcelino Komba. New rules for entering Mozambique. Daily News [Dar es Salaam], 20 August 1975. The immigration service became part of SNASP at the end of 1978. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 101 kb.
11 October 1975
Conselho de Ministros. Decreto-lei no.21/75 de 11 de Outubro. Boletim da República [Lourenço Marques] série 1, no.46 (11 October 1975), p.193-194. In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 253 kb. The Portuguese text of the decree that established SNASP.
31 October 1975
Political police: Frelimo’s new iron fist. To the Point [Johannesburg] vol.4 no.44 (31 October 1975). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 211 kb. Abridged.
30 December 1978
Decreto no. 28/78, de 20 de Dezembro. In: Principal Legislação promulgada pelo Governo da República Popular de Moçambique vol.6, de 25 de Junho de 1978 a 25 de Junho de 1979. (Maputo: Imprensa Nacional, 1979), p.241-242. Decrees that the Serviços de Migração, hitherto part of the Ministry of the Interior, will be transferred to SNASP. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 509 kb.
4 March 1979
Assembleia Popular. Comissão Permanente. Lei dos crimes contra a segurança do povo e do estado popular. Tempo [Maputo] no.439 (4 March 1979), p.25-33. In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 1.6 Mb.
15 April 1979
Grupos de vigilância: estudar a actuação inimiga. Tempo [Maputo] no.444 (15 April 1979), p.14. In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 227 kb.
24 June 1979
John Darnton. Mozambique, with Cuban help, is shoring up its internal security. New York Times [New York], 24 June 1979. A general description of the real threats to Mozambican security in the late 1970s, including the Smith regime in Rhodesia and the apartheid system in South Africa. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 204 kb.
1 July 1979
SNASP captura grupo de contra-revolucionários. Tempo [Maputo], no.455, 1 July 1979, p.3. Attributes the success to the vigilância popular, which informed SNASP. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 112 kb.
5 August 1979
Colocar o inimigo na defensiva passiva. Tempo [Maputo], no.460, 5 August 1979, p.53-54. A report on the second seminar of grupos de vigilância in Maputo factories, facilitated by members of SNASP. Claims that in some workplaces, over half the workforce belong to the groups. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 364 kb.
6 February 1980
Jornal do povo: reforcemos a vigilância popular. Notícias [Maputo], 6 February 1980. The widespread grupos de vigilância consisted of volunteers in workplace and village, and watched out for attempts by the enemy to disrupt economic activity. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 164 kb.
24 May 1980
Detidos dois cadastrados que se intitulavam do SNASP: indivíduos em causa roubaram 70 contos a um comerciante. Notícias [Maputo], 24 May 1980. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 188 kb.
4 March 1981
Ministério da Segurança. Comunicado do Ministério da Segurança anunciando o desmantelamento da rede da CIA [4 de Março de 1981]. In: Abel Mutemba, Operação 6.º aniversário: como uma rede da CIA foi desmantelada em Moçambique (Maputo: Publicações Notícias, 1981), p.27-30. Originally published in Notícias, 5 March 1981, the communiqué identifies each CIA agent by name. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 326 kb.
5 March 1981
Ministério da Segurança.. Rede de espionagem da CIA desmantelada no nosso país: expulsos seis espiões norte-americanos. Notícias [Maputo] (5 March 1981). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 305 kb. Communiqué from SNASP.
6 March 1981
A setback for the CIA: claim. Citizen [Johannesburg] (6 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 531 kb.
6 March 1981
US says Cuba set off Maputo’s spy row. Rand Daily Mail [Johannesburg] (6 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 707 kb.
6 March 1981
Caryle Murphy. US disputes spy allegation by Mozambique. Washington Post [Washington DC] (6 March 1981 ). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 140 kb.
7 March 1981
Sad farewell for 13 in disgrace. Rand Daily Mail [Johannesburg] (7 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 475 kb.
7 March 1981
Chris Marais, Jeremy Brooks, and John Matisonn. Diplomat is named in the Cuban affair. Rand Daily Mail [Johannesburg] (7 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 700 kb.
8 March 1981
Expresscope looks at the CIA expulsions: spy for us or your family will die. Sunday Express [Johannesburg] (8 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 124 kb.
8 March 1981
Kitt Katzin. Mozambique may lose millions in American aid. Sunday Express [Johannesburg] (8 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 696 kb.
9 March 1981
CIA collaborated with SA on raid: Maputo claim. Star [Johannesburg] (9 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 505 kb.
10 March 1981
Mozambique’s self-inflicted harm. Rand Daily Mail [Johannesburg] (10 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 122 kb. An editorial.
11 March 1981
CIA spied from aero club: Maputo. Star [Johannesburg] (11 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 931 kb.
12 March 1981
Matola officer is accused of spying. Citizen [Johannesburg] (12 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 487 kb.
16 March 1981
Cabaço claims US-SA espionage ring: spies shown to press in Mozambique. Citizen [Johannesburg] (16 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 132 kb.
16 March 1981
Informer fears CIA liquidation. Star [Johannesburg] (16 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 3.6 Mb.
16 March 1981
Maputo hits infiltration by CIA. Citizen [Johannesburg] (16 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 80 kb.
16 March 1981
US holds up $5-m food for Mozambique. Citizen [Johannesburg] (16 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 1.3 Mb.
16 March 1981
Keith Kiewiet. Mozambican spy show lacked credibility: pilot tells of Champagne Shirley’s wiles. Star [Johannesburg] (16 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 650 kb.
18 March 1981
Comment: spy farce. Citizen [Johannesburg] (18 March 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 553 kb.
13 April 1981
Mozambique frees American. Washington Post [ Washington DC] (13 April 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 29 kb. Ohio businessman Arthur Zimmerman is released.
14 April 1981
US official in Mozambique on tour of southern Africa. New York Times [New York] (14 April 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 29 kb. Chester Crocker visits Maputo in the aftermath of the expulsion of US diplomats accused of spying.
15 April 1981
Jay Ross. Reagan aide hits rough spots on mission to southern Africa. Washington Post [Washington DC] (15 April 1981). In English. Click here to download a PDF file, size 622 kb.
7 August 1981
Política estatal. Combater o inimigo infiltrado: da Escola de Estado e Direito 1.º de Maio recebemos ontem à tarde o texto que a seguir transcrevemos. Notícias [Maputo], 7 August 1981, p.2. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 249 kb.
15 November 1981
Samora Machel. Ofensiva da legalidade: garantir a paz, tranquilidade e segurança. Tempo [Maputo], no.579, 15 November 1981, p.22-28, 37-41. The text in Portuguese of Samora Machel’s speech at a public comício in Maputo on 5 November 1981, which denounced ‘in clear and severe language’ various kinds of misconduct by members of SNASP as well as the armed forces, the police, the militias, and the Ministry of Justice. The text also includes, on pages 40-41, «O Compromisso», which was read out by Armando Guebuza, then National Political Commissar, in which the security forces promise to do better in future. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 2.1 Mb.
15 November 1981
Celestino Jorge. A coragem de um partido. Tempo [Maputo], no.579, 15 November 1981, p.18-21. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 956 kb.
15 November 1981
Albino Magaia. Editorial: ofensiva da legalidade, somos mais livres. Tempo [Maputo], no.579, 15 November 1981, p.16-17. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 211 kb.
December 1981
Mozambique: purge of security forces. Africa [London], no.124, December 1981, p.39-40. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 321 kb.
7 December 1981
Balanço de um inquérito: os infiltrados nas FDS pensam que são mais que o povo. Notícias [Maputo], 7 December 1981. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 104 kb.
22 February 1982
Purificação de fileiras na Segurança: saneados 400 elementos em dois anos. Notícias [Maputo], 22 February 1982. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 85 kb.
22 February 1982
Jacinto Veloso. Resultados da ofensiva no SNASP. Notícias [Maputo], 22 February 1982. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 680 kb.
23 February 1982
Police are purged in Mozambique. International Herald Tribune [Paris], 23 February 1982. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 31 kb.
28 February 1982
Ofensiva política e organizacional: 400 elementos expulsos em dois anos do Ministério da Segurança (SNASP). Tempo [Maputo], no.594, 28 February 1982, p.8-9. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 205 kb.
27 May 1982
Em relação aos membros da Segurança, mecanismos de vigilância bastante difundidos: Ministro Jacinto Veloso. Notícias [Maputo], 27 May 1982. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 124 kb.
30 May 1982
Segurança de povo, para o povo, com o povo: Tempo entrevista Ministro de Segurança sobre Ofensiva pela Legalidade. Tempo [Maputo], no.607, 30 May 1982, p.14-21. An informative and lengthy interview with Jacinto Veloso, who had been Minister of Security since 1975. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 3.1 Mb.
12 July 1982
Reported detentions of security officials. Lisbon radio broadcast of 12 July 1982, reported in the Summary of World Broadcasts [London]. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 655 kb.
8 November 1982
Acções coordenadas em defesa da legalidade. Notícias [Maputo], 8 November 1982. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 276 kb.
27 March 1983
Lei dos crimes: alterações radicalizam combate. Tempo [Maputo], no.650, 27 March 1983. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 104 kb.
23 May 1983
Grupos de vigilância em reorganização em Gaza. Notícias [Maputo], 23 May 1983. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 53 kb.
Sérgio Vieira
Above: Sérgio Vieira, Minister of Security in Mozambique from 1984 to 1987. Vieira, a veteran of the armed struggle, also held at various times such posts as governor of the Banco de Moçambique and director of the Centro de Estudos Africanos.
17 January 1984
Na capital, trabalhadores preparam auto-defesa da cidade. Notícias [Maputo] (17 January 1984). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 107 kb.
3 February 1984
Infiltrados nas FDS denunciados em Manica. Notícias [Maputo] (3 February 1984). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 142 kb.
4 May 1984
Editorial: consciência e vigilância. Notícias [Maputo] (4 May 1984). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 123 kb.
5 May 1984
Intensificar a vigilância, neutralizar os bandidos, recomenda Governo da Província do Maputo. Notícias [Maputo] (5 May 1984). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 85 kb.
5 May 1984
Ofensiva na capital do país: organizar vigilância, defender tranquilidade. Notícias [Maputo] (5 May 1984). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 189 kb.
16 May 1984
Editorial: quem deve ter medo? Notícias [Maputo] (16 May 1984). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 147 kb.
19 May 1984
Ofensiva na Beira em defesa da legalidade: 1.º Secretário do Partido na cidade visita cadeias. Notícias [Maputo] (19 May 1984). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 121 kb.
4 July 1984
Marcelino Silva. Os indocumentados só viajam em autocarros? Notícias [Maputo] (4 July 1984). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 148 kb.
22 October 1984
Inhambane: membros do SNASP recebem prémios. Notícias [Maputo] (22 October 1984), p.3. In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 81 kb.
15 February 1985
O. Tembe. Apoio a iniciativa do SNASP e viva a vigilância popular! Notícias [Maputo] (15 February 1985). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 84 kb.
14 June 1985
10.º aniversário da independência: FDS trocam experiências do trabalho comum, diversas actividades assinalam Semana das Forças de Defesa e Segurança. Notícias [Maputo] (14 June 1985). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 380 kb.
14 June 1985
As tarefas fundamentais das Forças de Defesa e Segurança na nossa pátria. Notícias [Maputo] (14 June 1985). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 188 kb. Analysis of extracts from a speech by President Samora Machel.
19 June 1985
Com acções produtivos, FDS do Niassa comemoran 10.º aniversário. Notícias [Maputo] (19 June 1985). In Portuguese. Click here to download a PDF file, size 1.2 Mb.
11 July 1985
Teachers freed. Guardian [London], 11 July 1985. Briton John Wilson and Dutchman Richard Fluit, arrested in May 1985, are deported from Mozambique for security reasons. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 64 kb.
19 November 1985
SNASP reúne com pescadores em Maputo. Notícias [Maputo], 19 November 1985. Using fishermen as coastguards. In a private conversation in Maputo on 18 December 1985, MHN learned that although a communications network had been agreed and was budgeted, no land-based monitoring system existed in, for example, Nacala. Thus, even if fishing boats with radios saw, for example, South African vessels or submarines, there was no way for them to transmit the information in time for any action to be taken. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 868 kb.
January 1987
Machel wanted Vieira out. África Confidencial [Lisbon], no.14, January 1987, p.10. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 57 kb.
January 1987
SNASP front company. África Confidencial [Lisbon], no.14, January 1987, p.9. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 80 kb.
11 June 1987
South African agent held. African Concord [Lagos], 11 June 1987. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 46 kb.
23 June 1987
Perante a ameaça sul-africana, SNASP exorta à vigilância. Notícias [Maputo], 23 June 1987. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 597 kb.
5 September 1987
Manica: segurança prende 24 contrabandistas. Notícias [Maputo], 5 September 1987. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 30 kb.
17 September 1987
Highway Motel revived. Swazi Observer [Mbabane], 17 September 1987, p.9. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 2.6 Mb.
6 May 1988
Elementos detidos no Maputo não têm cidadania portuguesa. O Jornal [Lisbon], no.689, 6 May 1988, p.16. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 44 kb.
13 May 1988
[Untitled story on the detention of three Portuguese by SNASP]. Africa Economic Digest [London], 13 May 1988. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 35 kb.
12 October 1988
Chissano salutes security services. Broadcast in Portuguese from Maputo on 12 October 1988, transcribed in the Foreign Broadcast Information Service [FBIS] [Reston VA]. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 58 kb.
22 July 1989
SNASP: para já, a cosmética. Informáfrica [Lisbon], 22 July 1989. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 57 kb.
9 December 1989
Mozambique: SOCIMO dismantled. Indian Ocean Newsletter [Paris], 9 December 1989. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 113 kb.
24 May 1991
Frelimo agrees, SNASP will cease. SouthScan [London], 24 May 1991. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 50 kb.
18 July 1991
Mozambique abolishes security police. Citizen [Johannesburg], 18 July 1991, p.22. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 796 kb.
23 July 1991
Ken Vernon. More than an acronym has changed in Mozambique: secret police under surveillance. Star [Johannesburg], 23 July 1991. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 97 kb.
April 1992
Nomore Sibanda. Peace and security in the region, southern Africa's dilemma. SARDC Special Reports [Harare], April 1992, p.1-2. Click here to view or download a PDF, size 406 kb.
Decoration
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